World health organization (WHO) in the year 1948 defined health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” The WHO constitution claims that every government is responsible for the health of their peoples which can be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social measures. (WHO, 2020)
Definition and Key Terms of Public Health-
American Bacteriologist Charles-Edward Amory has defined public health as “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private communities, and individuals.” (2020)
Let us see some of the facts from history with regards to public health:
• The Greeks and the Roman introduced sanitization measure for the whole community in the 500 BCE
• In 1840 the Public Health Act was established in the United Kingdom.
• In 1970 the environment Protection Agency was founded in the USA.
• In 1918 500 million people worldwide were infected with Influenza
• In 1955 polio vaccine was introduced
• 34 million worldwide were infected with HIV and only a 20% decline in infections was observed since 2001
Goals and Values of Public Health-
To have a safe living environment the public health focuses to minimize the effects of any disease by implementing effective measures to reduce premature deaths and safety measures to keep the effects of a particular disease, injury, and disability under control. The following are the important values that help public health are:
• Commitment to equality, social justice, and sustainable development.
• Recognition of the importance of the health of the community as well as the individual.
• Self-determination, respect for diversity, empowerment, and community participation.
Importance of Public Health-
Public health is an important factor to undertake health measures and preventive measures to eradicate the current deadly diseases, along with future measures to control any upcoming future health problems. Also, ailments which do not requires a specific treatment strategy, and the person gets healthy with certain tips. Public health measures and actions play a very important role in both developed and developing countries.
All the public health issues are controlled by the world health organization. But in most of the countries, the complete health system of the country is controlled by the health department and various health ministries. For instance, the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in the USA handles all the health activities that are of most importance to the people.